REEMA THAREJA PROGRAMMING IN C PDF

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Data amp File Structures Using C gtu Reema Thareja. It's free to register here to get PDF Programming In C By Reema Thareja file Using C gtu Reema. It's free to register here to get PDF Programming In C By Reema Thareja file Using C Data warehousing reema thareja pdf. 3 Pages··83 KB·1, Where can I find PDFs of the book Python Programming by Reema Thareja? say that this book programming in C is not available as a PDF unfortunately.


Reema Thareja Programming In C Pdf

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Reema Thareja. This second edition of Programming in C is designed to serve as a textbook for the undergraduate students Look inside PDF. University of Delhi. Reema Thareja. Second Edition. Data Structures. Using c programming language and is widespread among all the computer architectures . Reema Thareja is the author of Computer Fundamentals and Programming in C ( avg rating, ratings, 27 reviews, published ), Data Structures Usi.

List this Seller's Books. Payment Methods accepted by seller. Vedams eBooks P Ltd Address: January 30, Home Reema Thareja Programming in C. Stock Image. Published by Oxford University Press, Used Condition: As New Soft cover. Save for Later. download Used Price: Bookseller Inventory Ask Seller a Question. Bibliographic Details Title: Programming in C Publisher: Oxford University Press Publication Date: Soft cover Book Condition: As New. About this title Synopsis: Store Description A one stop shop for books from India.

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We have an extensive annotated catalogue of books on the web. Visit Seller's Storefront Terms of Sale: A structure is a collection of related data items of different types which is used for implementing other data structures such as linked lists, trees, graphs, etc.

We will also read about unions which is also a collection of variables of different data types, except that in case of unions, we can only store information in one field at any one time. Chapter 6, Linked Lists discusses different types of linked lists such as singly linked lists, doubly linked lists, circular linked lists, doubly circular linked lists, header linked lists, and multi-linked lists. Linked list is a preferred data structure when it is required to allocate memory dynamically.

The chapter also shows the practical implementation of these data structures using arrays as well as linked lists. It also shows how stacks can be used for the evaluation of arithmetic expressions. The chapter also provides the real-world applications of queues. Chapter 9, Trees focuses on binary trees, their traversal schemes and representation in memory. The chapter also discusses expression trees, tournament trees, and Huffman trees, all of which are variants of simple binary trees.

Chapter 10,Efficient Binary Trees broadens the discussion on trees taken up in Chapter 9 by going one step ahead and discussing efficient binary trees. The chapter discusses binary search trees, threaded binary trees, AVL trees, red-black trees, and splay trees. Chapter 12, Heaps discusses three types of heaps—binary heaps, binomial heaps, and Fibonacci heaps. The chapter not only explains the operations on these data structures but also makes a comparison, thereby highlighting the key features of each structure.

Chapter 13, Graphs contains a detailed explanation of non-linear data structure called graphs.

It discusses the memory representation, traversal schemes, and applications of graphs in the real world. Chapter 14, Searching and Sorting covers two of the most common operations in computer science, i. It gives the technique, complexity, and program for different searching and sorting techniques.

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Chapter 15, Hashing and Collision deals with different methods of hashing and techniques to resolve collisions. Chapter 16, the last chapter of the book, Files and Their Organization, discusses the concept related to file organization. It explains the different ways in which files can be organized on the hard disk and the indexing techniques that can be used for fast retrieval of data.

The book also provides a set of seven appendices. Appendix A introduces the concept of dynamic memory allocation in C programs. Appendix B provides a brief discussion of garbage collection technique which is used for automatic memory management. Appendix C explains backtracking which is a recursive algorithm that uses stacks.

Appendix E includes two C programs which show how to read and write binary files. Appendix F includes a C program which shows how to sort a list of numbers using address calculation sort.

Appendix G provides chapter-wise answers to all the objective questions. Reema Thareja www. Introduction to C 1 2.

5-arrays_Chapter5 - Programming in C 1/e Reema Thareja...

Introduction to Data Structures and Algorithms 43 3. Arrays 66 4. Strings 5. Structures and Unions 6. Linked Lists 7. Stacks 8. Queues 9. Trees Efficient Binary Trees Multi-way Search Trees Heaps Graphs Searching and Sorting Hashing and Collision Arrays 66 1. Introduction to Data Structures 3.

Linked Lists Arrays 6. Strings 6.

Structures and Unions Circular Linked List 6. Trees Doubly Linked List 9. Stacks 9. Efficient Binary Trees 7. Queues Files and Their Internal Sorting Organization Before going into a detailed analysis of data structures, it would be useful to familiarize ourselves with the basic knowledge of programming in C.

Therefore, in this chapter we will learn about the various constructs of C such as identifiers and keywords, data types, constants, variables, input and output functions, operators, control statements, functions, and pointers.

Although C was initially developed for writing system software, today it has become such a popular language that a variety of software programs are written using this language. The greatest advantage of using C for programming is that it can be easily used on different types of computers. Structure of a C program A C program contains one or more functions, where a function is defined as a group of statements that perform a well-defined task.

Figure 1. The statements in a function are written in a logical sequence to perform a specific task. The main function is the most important function and is a part of every C program. Rather, the execution of a C program begins with this function. From the structure given in Fig.

Note main that programmers can choose any name for functions. They are formed by using a sequence of letters both They should not contain Statement 2; They can actually be longer than 31, but the All keywords are basically program a sequence of characters that have a fixed meaning. By convention, all keywords must be written in lower case letters. Table 1. C language provides four basic data types. The char data type is of one byte and is used to store single characters.

Note that C does not provide any data type for storing text. This is because text is made up of individual characters. You Introduction to C 3 might have been surprised to see that the range of char is given as — to Although the data type we use for our variables does not have a big impact on the speed or memory usage of the application, we should always try to use int unless there is a need to use any other data type.

When using a variable, we actually refer to the address of the memory where the data is stored. C language supports two basic kinds of variables. Modifiers like short, long, signed, and unsigned can also be used with numeric variables. The difference between signed and unsigned numeric variables is that signed variables can be either negative or positive but unsigned variables can only be positive.

Therefore, by using an unsigned variable we can increase the maximum positive range. To declare an unsigned variable, the unsigned modifier must be explicitly added during the declaration of the variable. Character Variables Character variables are just single characters enclosed within single quotes.

Declaring Variables To declare a variable, specify the data type of the variable followed by its name. The data type indicates the kind of values that the variable can store.

Variable names should always be meaningful and must reflect the purpose of their usage in the program. In C, variable declaration always ends with a semi-colon. First, variables should be declared before using them. Second, variables should be declared closest to their first point of use so that the source code is easier to maintain.

Initializing Variables While declaring the variables, we can also initialize them with some value. While values of variables can be changed at any time, values of constants can never be changed.

Constants are used to define fixed values like pi or the charge on an electron so that their value does not get changed in the program even by mistake. Declaring Constants To declare a constant, precede the normal variable declaration with const keyword and assign it a value.

For that, open a text editor. This file has some in-built functions. By simply including this file in our code, we can use these functions directly. After all the statements in the program have been executed, the last statement of the program will return an integer value to the operating system.

The concepts will be clear to us when we read this chapter in toto. So even if you do not understand certain things, do not worry. Note Every statement in the main function ends with a semi-colon ;. If you leave out the —o, then the file name a.

If there are any mistakes in the program, then the compiler will tell you what mistake s you have made and on which line the error has occurred. In case of errors, you need to re-open your. However, if everything is right, then no error s will be reported and the compiler will create an. That is, Welcome to the world of C Note The printf and return statements have been indented or moved away from the left side.

This is done to make the code more readable. Using Comments Comments are a way of explaining what a program does. C supports two types of comments. Note that comment statements are not executed by the compiler. Rather, they are ignored by the compiler as they are simply added in programs to make the code understandable by programmers as well as other users.

It is a good habit to always put a comment at the top of a program that tells you what the program does. This helps in defining the usage of the program the moment you open it. Standard Header Files Till now we have used printf function, which is defined in the stdio.

Even in other programs that we will be writing, we will use many functions that are not written by us. For example, to use the strcmp function that compares two strings, we will pass string arguments and retrieve the result. We do not know the details of how these functions work.

Such functions that are provided by all C compilers are included in standard header files. As shown in Section 1. This is done by using the scanf function that reads data from the keyboard. Similarly, for outputting results of Introduction to C 7 the program, printf function is used that sends results to a terminal. Like printf and scanf, there are different functions in C that can carry out the input—output operations.

That is, it indicates that data should be read from the stream but ignored not stored in the memory location. However, if the scanf function encounters a white space or an unconvertible character, input is terminated. Modifier h is used for short int or unsigned short int, l is used for long int, unsigned long int, or double values. Finally, L is used for long double data values. It also indicates how this data is expected to be read from the user. The type specifiers for scanf function are given in Table 1.

The function simply returns the number of input fields successfully scanned and stored. As we have not studied functions till now, understanding scanf function in depth will be a bit difficult here, but for now just understand that the scanf function is used to store values in memory locations associated with variables.

For this, the function should have the address of the variables. The control string contains format specifiers which are arranged in the order so that they correspond with the arguments in the variable list.

It may also contain text to be printed such as instructions to the user, identifier names, or any other text to make the text readable. Note that there must be enough arguments because if there are not enough arguments, then the result will be completely unpredictable.

However, if by mistake you specify more number of arguments, the excess arguments will simply be ignored.

If the number of output characters is smaller than the specified width, then the output would be right justified with blank spaces to the left. However, if the number of characters is greater than the specified width, then all the characters would be printed. The type specifiers for printf function are given in Table 1. Arithmetic operators can be applied to any integer or floating point number.

This operator can be applied only on integer operands and cannot be used on float or double operands. While performing modulo division, the sign of the result is always the sign of the first operand the dividend.

Integer division always results in an integer result. So, the result is always rounded-off by ignoring the remainder. This is an illegal operation that results in a run-time division-by-zero exception thereby terminating the program. If both operands are integers, the result will be an integer; if one or both operands are floating point numbers then the result would be a floating point number.

All the arithmetic operators bind from left to right. Multiplication, division, and modulus operators have higher precedence over addition and subtraction operators.

Thus, if an arithmetic expression consists of a mix of operators, then multiplication, division, and modulus will be carried out first in a left to right order, before any addition and subtraction can be performed. Relational operators return true or false value, depending on whether the conditional relationship between the two operands holds or not. C provides four relational operators which are illustrated in Table 1.

Equality Operators C language also supports two equality operators to compare operands for strict equality or inequality. The equality operators have lower precedence than the relational operators. On the contrary, the not- equal, 0 otherwise equal-to operator! Logical Operators C language supports three logical operators.

As in case of arithmetic expressions, logical expressions are evaluated from left to right. If both the operands are true, 0 1 0 then the whole expression is true. If both or one of the operands is 1 0 0 false, then the whole expression evaluates to false. The truth table 1 1 1 of logical AND operator is given in Table 1. Logical OR Table 1. A B A B Otherwise it returns a true value. The truth table of logical OR 0 0 0 operator is given in Table 1. Logical NOT!

A 1 if the expression produces a zero. The truth table of logical NOT 0 1 operator is given in Table 1. The value of! Unary Operators Unary operators act on single operands. C language supports three unary operators. They are unary minus, increment, and decrement operators. Unary Minus — Unary minus operator negates the value of its operand.

For example, if a number is positive then it becomes negative when preceded with a unary minus operator. Similarly, if the number is negative, it becomes positive after applying the unary minus operator. After applying unary minus operator — on the operand b, the value becomes —10, which indicates it has a negative value.In addition, numerous screenshots that aid students to visualize the concepts and several example codes to apply the concepts learned in real-life scenario are included.

Switch statements are also used to handle the input given by the user. Write a program to find whether a number is even or odd. Related titles.

Chapter 10—An algorithm for in-order traversal of a threaded binary tree has been added.