Wheater's Functional Histology. THIN SKIN. Wheater's Functional Histology. STRUCTURE OF THE SKIN. • Epidermis. • Dermis. • Subdermal connective tissue. Online PDF Wheater s Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas, 6e, Download PDF Wheater s Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas, 6e, Full PDF. PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have 78,, eBooks Color Atlas of Cytology, Histology, and Microscopic Anatomy - Bio Nica .

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Histology - A Text and Atlas (With Correlated Cell and Molecular Biology) 7th Edition Color Atlas and Text of Histology 6th Edition ().pdf. Wheater's Functional Histology 5 th Edition pdf – NEURON ARC – Google. A Text and Colour Atlas, 5 th Edition' wheater's functional histology. Take a simple approach to understanding the fundamentals with Wheater's Functional Histology. Offering concise text accompanied by hundreds of captions .

The images are alright. But there's not enough of them, and there's not enough explanatory detail either. A good reference.

Elizabeth Review: Wheater's Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas This is a very good histology book, though probably not essential at least in my program, your mileage may vary.

The printing is high quality and structures are labeled clearly. Offering concise text accompanied by hundreds of captions and images of his Intended as a complete introduction to the Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions.

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Sort by: Year 20 22 22 6 17 Show more Language English Undetermined 5. Displaying Editions 1 - 10 out of Save to: Print book. Wheater's Functional Histology. Mammals only use their abdominal muscles only during forceful exhalation see Fig.

Never during any form of inhalation. As the diaphragm contracts, the rib cage is simultaneously enlarged by the ribs being pulled upwards by the intercostal muscles as shown in Fig. All the ribs slant downwards from the rear to the front as shown in Fig. Thus the rib cage's transverse diameter can be increased in the same way as the antero-posterior diameter is increase by the so-called pump handle movement shown in Fig.

The enlargement of the thoracic cavity's vertical dimension by the contraction of the diaphragm, and its two horizontal dimensions by the lifting of the front and sides of the ribs, causes the intrathoracic pressure to fall. The lungs' interiors are open to the outside air, and being elastic, therefore expand to fill the increased space.

The inflow of air into the lungs occurs via the respiratory airways Fig.

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In health these airways starting at the nose or mouth, and ending in the microscopic dead-end sacs called alveoli are always open, though the diameters of the various sections can be changed by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.

This returns the chest and abdomen to a position determined by their anatomical elasticity. This is the "resting mid-position" of the thorax and abdomen Fig. The scale on the left, and the blue line, indicate the partial pressures of carbon dioxide in kPa, while that on the right and the red line, indicate the partial pressures of oxygen, also in kPa to convert kPa into mm Hg, multiply by 7.

The volume of air that moves in or out at the nose or mouth during a single breathing cycle is called the tidal volume.

In addition the " accessory muscles of inhalation " exaggerate the actions of the intercostal muscles Fig.

These accessory muscles of inhalation are muscles that extend from the cervical vertebrae and base of the skull to the upper ribs and sternum , sometimes through an intermediary attachment to the clavicles. Seen from outside the body the lifting of the clavicles during strenuous or labored inhalation is sometimes called clavicular breathing , seen especially during asthma attacks and in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

During heavy breathing, exhalation is caused by relaxation of all the muscles of inhalation. But now, the abdominal muscles, instead of remaining relaxed as they do at rest , contract forcibly pulling the lower edges of the rib cage downwards front and sides Fig. This not only drastically decreases the size of the rib cage, but also pushes the abdominal organs upwards against the diaphragm which consequently bulges deeply into the thorax Fig.

The end-exhalatory lung volume is now well below the resting mid-position and contains far less air than the resting "functional residual capacity".

However, in a normal mammal, the lungs cannot be emptied completely. In an adult human there is always still at least 1 liter of residual air left in the lungs after maximum exhalation.

All of these actions rely on the muscles described above, and their effects on the movement of air in and out of the lungs.

Although not a form of breathing, the Valsalva maneuver involves the respiratory muscles. It is, in fact, a very forceful exhalatory effort against a tightly closed glottis , so that no air can escape from the lungs. The abdominal muscles contract very powerfully, causing the pressure inside the abdomen and thorax to rise to extremely high levels.

The Valsalva maneuver can be carried out voluntarily, but is more generally a reflex elicited when attempting to empty the abdomen during, for instance, difficult defecation, or during childbirth.

Breathing ceases during this maneuver. Gas exchange Main article: Gas exchange Mechanism of gas exchange Fig. All the gas tensions are in kPa.

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To convert to mm Hg, multiply by 7. This illustrates how the pulmonary capillary blood is completely surrounded by alveolar air. In a normal human lung all the alveoli together contain about 3 liters of alveolar air. All the pulmonary capillaries contain about ml blood.

The two red objects labeled "RBC" are red blood cells in the pulmonary capillary blood. The primary purpose of the respiratory system is the equilibration of the partial pressures of the respiratory gases in the alveolar air with those in the pulmonary capillary blood Fig.

This process occurs by simple diffusion , [17] across a very thin membrane known as the blood—air barrier , which forms the walls of the pulmonary alveoli Fig. It consisting of the alveolar epithelial cells , their basement membranes and the endothelial cells of the alveolar capillaries Fig.

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This ensures that equilibration of the partial pressures of the gases in the two compartments is very efficient and occurs very quickly.

This typical mammalian anatomy combined with the fact that the lungs are not emptied and re-inflated with each breath leaving a substantial volume of air, of about 2.

Thus the animal is provided with a very special "portable atmosphere", whose composition differs significantly from the present-day ambient air. The resulting arterial partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide are homeostatically controlled. A rise in the arterial partial pressure of CO2 and, to a lesser extent, a fall in the arterial partial pressure of O2, will reflexly cause deeper and faster breathing till the blood gas tensions in the lungs, and therefore the arterial blood, return to normal.

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The converse happens when the carbon dioxide tension falls, or, again to a lesser extent, the oxygen tension rises: the rate and depth of breathing are reduced till blood gas normality is restored. This is very tightly controlled by the monitoring of the arterial blood gases which accurately reflect composition of the alveolar air by the aortic and carotid bodies , as well as by the blood gas and pH sensor on the anterior surface of the medulla oblongata in the brain.

There are also oxygen and carbon dioxide sensors in the lungs, but they primarily determine the diameters of the bronchioles and pulmonary capillaries , and are therefore responsible for directing the flow of air and blood to different parts of the lungs.

If more carbon dioxide than usual has been lost by a short period of hyperventilation , respiration will be slowed down or halted until the alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide has returned to 5.

The oxygen is held on the hemoglobin by four ferrous iron -containing heme groups per hemoglobin molecule.At the summit of Mt. Alan Stevens has written, edited and developed numerous publications on telefantasy series, including The Prisoner, Doctor Who and Blake's 7 notably Liberation: the Unofficial and Unauthorised Guide to Blake's 7, also from Telos. Thirdly, the surface tension of the curved watery layer lining the alveoli tends to draw water from the lung tissues into the alveoli.

The tendency for the alveoli to collapse is therefore almost the same at the end of exhalation as at the end of inhalation.

The inflow of air into the lungs occurs via the respiratory airways Fig. Offering concise text accompanied by hundreds of captions and images of his Home About Help Search.